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Saturday, July 11, 2020 | History

1 edition of Ignition risk of hydrocarbon vapors by hot surfaces in the open air found in the catalog.

Ignition risk of hydrocarbon vapors by hot surfaces in the open air

Ignition risk of hydrocarbon vapors by hot surfaces in the open air

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Published by The Institute in Washington, D.C. (1220 L St., N.W., Washington 20005) .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Flame.,
  • Hydrocarbons -- Flammability.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementSafety and Fire Protection Department, American Petroleum Institute.
    SeriesAPI publication ;, 2216
    ContributionsAmerican Petroleum Institute. Safety and Fire Protection Dept.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQD516 .I46 1991
    The Physical Object
    Paginationv, 3 p. ;
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL1614790M
    LC Control Number91155895

    Introduction to Hydrocarbon Gas Flammability. Today in Part 1 we will introduce important concepts in hydrocarbon gas flammability. For a fire or deflagration to occur, three things must be present: oxygen (above the minimum oxygen of combustion), an ignition source, and hydrocarbons (in concentrations between the Upper Flammability Limit and Lower Flammability Limit). Ignition sources can include static, electrical energy sources, open flames, lightning, cigarettes, cutting and welding tools, hot surfaces, and frictional heat. The following OSHA and NIOSH documents provide guidance on recognizing and controlling these hazards: Prevention of Fatalities from Ignition of Vapors by Mobile Engines and Auxiliary.

    AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE The lowest temperature at which the hydrocarbon will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition Vapors or gases in air are flammable only between certain concentrations Lower Explosion Limit (LEL) Upper Explosion Limit (UEL) FLAMMABLE RANGE. tests. In the open air, wind and convection currents prevent the air-hydrocarbon mixture from contacting the hot surface for long periods. With the result that a hot surface in the open air needs to exceed the minimum ignition temperature of the hydrocarbon by about oC for ignition to occur. Electric Arcs and Sparks.

    hydrocarbon vapours because a) an explosion will result b) there are too many sources of ignition c) auto-ignition will occur d) the air will dilute the mixture e) hydrocarbon vapours have such high ignition .   Property Damage (Fire / Explosion) Creating an ignition source (flame, heat, sparks, non-intrinsically safe equipment, molten metal or direct flames) in a combustible atmosphere (flammable materials/vapors) leading to fire or explosion. Caution must be taken when working near openings or cracks in walls, flooring, open doorways and windows. Impinging heat to surrounding process .


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Ignition risk of hydrocarbon vapors by hot surfaces in the open air Download PDF EPUB FB2

Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air 1 GENERAL SCOPE This recommended practice provides information concern-ing the potential for ignition of hydrocarbons that are exposed to hot surfaces in the open air. Hydrocarbon liquids, when heated sufficiently, can ignite without the application of a flame.

Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air RP provides information concerning the potential for ignition of hydrocarbons that are exposed to hot surfaces in the open air. Hydrocarbon liquids, when heated sufficiently, can ignite without the application of a flame or spark.

Even vehicle exhaust systems, in most instances, do not operate at a sufficiently high temperature to ignite hydrocarbon vapor in the open air. E Experimental studies and experience have shown that hot surfaces must be hundreds of degrees above published minimum ignition temperatures to ignite freely moving flammable vapor in the open air.

Auto-ignition Temperature Testing Criteria Standard ASTM Auto-ignition Test Methods Open Air Auto-ignition Tests Gasoline and Oxygenate Blends 4 IGNITION BY HOT SURFACES Equipment Surfaces Sides of Storage Tanks Ignition of Heavy Oils by Hot Surfaces 5 SUMMARY General Conclusion.

IGNITION RISK OF HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS AND VAPORS BY HOT SURFACES IN THE OPEN AIR. Publisher: American Petroleum Institute. Published: Available Formats: PDF - English - DRM More Info on product formats.

API PublicationIgnition Risk of Hydrocarbon Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air, concludes that ignition of vapors on hot surfaces in open air requires temperatures well above (at least /spl deg/C) the laboratory-determined (ASTM E ) minimum ignition temperature of the material involved.

The ignition of hydrocarbons by hot surfaces may occur when oil is released under pressure and sprays on a hot surface or is spilled and lies on a hot surface for a period of time.

Understanding the mechanism and dynamics of autoignition is an important step in preventing or controlling the ignition of hydrocarbons by hot surfaces in the open air.

API RP Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon liquids and vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air. - 3rd edition. API, “Ignition Risk of Hot Surfaces in Open Air,” APIAmerican Petroleum Institute, Washington D.C., “Hot Surface Ignition Temperatures of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor-Air Mixtures,” Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol.

10, no. 3,pp. – Google Scholar [22]. API Recommended Practice () Ignition risk of hydrocarbon liquids and vapors by hot surfaces in the open air, 3rd edn. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, USA. Google Scholar; Eckhoff RK () Dust explosions in the process industries, 2nd edn.

Gulf Professional Publishing, Amsterdam, Chap. 7, ppISBN: The ignition of hydrocarbons by hot surfaces may occur when oil is released under pressure and sprays on a hot surface or is spilled and lies on a hot surface for a period of time.

Understanding the mechanism and dynamics of autoignition is an important step in preventing or controlling the ignition of hydrocarbons by hot surfaces in the open air. But in API RP“Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air,” SectionConclusion, it states: “The identification of a heated surface as the cause of ignition can often lead to an incorrect analysis of the real source of ignition.

Hydrocarbon liquids, when heated sufficiently, can ignite without the application of a flame or spark. The ignition of hydrocarbons by hot surfaces may occur when oil is released under pressure and sprays on a hot surface or is spilled and lies on a hot surface for a period of time.

Click on the book chapter title to read more. Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air Introduction and Scope The ignition of accidental releases of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may result in damaging fires.

Frequently, hot surfaces in the area where hydrocarbon vapor is released. * A For more information, see Severy et al., Automobile Collision Fires, and API PUBLIgnition Risk of Hydrocarbon Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air.

For more information on mechanical sparks as an ignition source, refer to Campbell, Appraisal of the Hazards of Friction-Spark Ignition of Aircraft Crash Fires, and API PUBL Ignition risk of hydrocarbon liquids and vapors by hot surfaces in the open air: surfaces China Oil & Gas Industry Standards: SY/T Ignition risk of hydrocarbon vapors by hot surfaces in the open air: surfaces China Oil & Gas Industry Standards: SY/T Maceral identification and statistical methods on polished surfaces of.

Although ignition of flammable liquids by hot surfaces is well known in the automotive and aviation industries, little fundamental research has been conducted to understand this ignition mechanism. API RP 3RD ED (R ) Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air; Third Edition; Reaffirmed, October API RP 7TH ED () Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray Currents; Seventh Edition.

A photo of the flammable test set-up is illustrated in Figure and the experimental results are listed in Table The upward propagation cylindrical equipment was designed according to ISO ().It mainly consists of an explosion cylinder, a gas mixing system, an electric ignition system, and a pressure explosion cylinder, with an inner diameter of 60 mm and length of.

Chemical Safety Board (CSB) Investigation Report: Vapor Cloud Deflagration and Fire: in-depth report of multiple fatality incident resulting from ignition of vapors at a waste water disposal site.

CSB Safety Video: Death in the Oilfield: tells the story of a fatal explosion due to ignition of vapors during hot work activities on a crude oil tank.William D. Manha, in Safety Design for Space Systems, Autoignition. Autoignition occurs when a mixture of gases or vapors ignites spontaneously with no external ignition source and after reaching a certain temperature, the autoignition temperature.

The autoignition temperature is not an intrinsic property of the gases or vapors (Kanury ) but is the lowest temperature in a system. Hot Surface Ignition Temperatures of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor-Air Mixtures.